New Zealand Prime Minister Ardern Gives Birth to Baby Girl

New Zealand Prime Minister Ardern Gives Birth to Baby Girl

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern gave birth to her first child, a girl, on Thursday, Ardern said in a posting on Instagram.

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern Gives Birth to First Child

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern gave birth to her first child, a girl, on Thursday, Ardern said in a posting on Instagram.

birth

birth

card

birth

a birthday gift for my sister… … her birthday is tomorrow!!!!!!! and oof i luv them!!!!!!!!!!!   this is messy but im trying to get better !

BIRTH

my gf gave me a cu te bear for my birthday and i love her  

Birth

He took it rather well…? XP  Become my Patron

birth

garfield is 40 now

birth

birth

BIRTH

Happy Birthday to jellubean !!! gosh you9ve been such a great friend to me,, i cant believe we9ve been friends for like 3 years now ;;v;; im really glad ive been here to see you grow both as an artist and a person!! thanks for helping me grow as well haha I h…

Birth

HEY watercricket HAPPY BIRTH THERELL PROBABLY BE MORE SINCE THIS IS PRETTY LACKLUSTER BUT HOPE U LIKE IT ANYWAYS

birth

Oh shet this got weird

birth

a birthdaygift for my dear frienddddd hAPPY BIRTHDAAAAY!!!!1 nyt oot aikuinen hurraAA!!

Nirvana Baby, Spencer Elden

https://vimeo.com/10958928!.?.!www.barryodonnell.com. Shot for Obey Clothing: http://obeyclothing.com/#/video/spencer/. An interview with Spencer Elden, the infant from the cover of Nirvana’s” Nevermind “cd. We overtook the 19 years of age artist presently dealing with Shepard Fairey at Obey. http://vampiresoneday.wordpress.com/. Songs by Ernest Gonzales “Opening

A Lost Sacred Door” www.fofmusic.net.

Shot on a Canon 7d.

Birth weight

Baby weighed as appropriate for gestational age.

Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.[1] The average birth weight in babies of European heritage is 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lb), though the range of normal is between 2.5 kilograms (5.5 lb) and 5 kilograms (11 lb) (all but 5% of newborns will fall into this range). Babies of south Asian and Chinese heritage weigh about 240 grams (0.53 lb) less.[2][3]

There have been numerous studies that have attempted, with varying degrees of success, to show links between birth weight and later-life conditions, including diabetes, obesity, tobacco smoking and intelligence. Low birth weight is associated with neonatal infection.

Contents

  • 1 Determinants
  • 2 Abnormalities
  • 3 Influence on adult life
    • 3.1 Obesity
    • 3.2 Diabetes
    • 3.3 Intelligence
  • 4 Poor neonatal care
  • 5 Epidemiology
  • 6 See also
  • 7 References
  • 8 External links

Determinants[edit]

There are basically two distinct determinants for birth weight:

  • The duration of gestation prior to birth, that is, the gestational age at which the child is born

Relation of weight and gestational age[where?].

  • The prenatal growth rate, generally measured in relation to what weight is expected for any gestational age.

The incidence of birth weight being outside what is normal is influenced by the parents in numerous ways, including:

  • Genetics
  • The health of the mother, particularly during the pregnancy. Intercurrent diseases in pregnancy are sometimes associated with decreased birth weight. For example, Celiac disease confers an odds ratio of low birth weight of approximately 1.8.[4]
  • Environmental factors, including exposure of the mother to secondhand smoke[5]
  • Economic status of the parents gives inconsistent study findings according to a review on 2010, and remains speculative as a determinant.[6]
  • Other factors, like multiple births, where each baby is likely to be outside the AGA (appropriate for gestational age), one more so than the other.

Abnormalities[edit]

  • A low birth weight can be caused either by a preterm birth (low gestational age at birth) or of the infant being small for gestational age (slow prenatal growth rate), or a combination of both.
  • A very large birth weight is usually caused by the infant having been large for gestational age

Influence on adult life[edit]

Studies have been conducted to investigate how a person’s birth weight can influence aspects of their future life. This includes theorised links with obesity, diabetes and intelligence.

Obesity[edit]

A baby born small or large for gestational age (either of the two extremes) is thought to have an increased risk of obesity in later life,[7][8] but it was also shown that this relationship is fully explained by maternal weight.[9]

Growth hormone (GH) therapy at a certain dose induced catch-up of lean body mass (LBM). However percentage body fat decreased in the GH-treated subjects. Bone mineral density SDS measured by DEXA increased significantly in the GH-treated group compared to the untreated subjects, though there is much debate over whether or not SGA (small for gestational age) is significantly adverse to children to warrant inducing catch-up.[10]

Diabetes[edit]

Babies that have a low birth weight are thought to have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later life.[11][12][13] [14]

Intelligence[edit]

Some studies have shown a direct link between an increased birth weight and an increased intelligence quotient.[15][16][17] Increased birth weight is also linked to greater risk of developing autism.[18]

Poor neonatal care[edit]

Recent evidence suggests that the effects of low birth weight are constant across developmental years, suggesting that poor neonatal care has long term impacts.[19]

Epidemiology[edit]

Disability-adjusted life years out of 100,000 lost due to any cause in 2004.[20]

  no data
  less than 9,250
  9,250–16,000
  16,000–22,750
  22,750–29,500
  29,500–36,250
  36,250–43,000
  43,000–49,750
  49,750–56,500
  56,500–63,250
  63,250–70,000
  70,000–80,000
  more than 80,000

See also[edit]

  • Barker’s hypothesis
  • MOMO syndrome
  • Low birth weight paradox
  • Prenatal nutrition and birth weight

References[edit]

  • ^ Definitions Archived April 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. from Georgia Department of Public Health. Date: 12/04/2008. Original citation: “Birthweight: Infant’s weight recorded at the time of birth”
  • ^ “New birth weight curves tailored to baby’s ethnicity | Toronto Star”. thestar.com. Retrieved 2016-09-22. 
  • ^ Janssen, Patricia A; Thiessen, Paul; Klein, Michael C; Whitfield, Michael F; MacNab, Ying C; Cullis-Kuhl, Sue C (2007-07-10). “Standards for the measurement of birth weight, length and head circumference at term in neonates of European, Chinese and South Asian ancestry”. Open Medicine. 1 (2): e74–e88. ISSN 1911-2092. PMC 2802014 . PMID 20101298. 
  • ^ Tersigni C, Castellani R, de Waure C, et al. (2014). “Celiac disease and reproductive disorders: meta-analysis of epidemiologic associations and potential pathogenic mechanisms”. Human Reproduction Update. 20 (4): 582–93. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmu007. PMID 24619876. 
  • ^ “The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General”. Surgeon General of the United States. 2006-06-27. Retrieved 2014-06-16.  pp. 198–205
  • ^ Margerison Zilko CE (January 2010). “Economic contraction and birth outcomes: an integrative review”. Hum Reprod Update. 16 (4): 445–458. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmp059. PMID 20085917. 
  • ^ “3 stages of childhood may predict obesity risk – Fitness – MSNBC.com”. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  • ^ Singhal A, Wells J, Cole TJ, Fewtrell M, Lucas A (1 March 2003). “Programming of lean body mass: a link between birth weight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease?”. Am J Clin Nutr. 77 (3): 726–30. PMID 12600868. 
  • ^ Parsons TJ, Power C, Manor O (December 2001). “Fetal and early life growth and body mass index from birth to early adulthood in 1958 British cohort: longitudinal study”. BMJ. 323 (7325): 1331–5. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7325.1331. PMC 60670 . PMID 11739217. 
  • ^ “GH Treatment Effects on Body Composition in SGA”. Growth, Genetics & Hormones. 24 (1). May 2008. 
  • ^ “Low birth weight diabetes link”. BBC News. 2005-02-25. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  • ^ Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman S, Berkey CS, Field AE, Colditz GA (March 2003). “Maternal gestational diabetes, birth weight, and adolescent obesity”. Pediatrics. 111 (3): e221–6. doi:10.1542/peds.111.3.e221. PMID 12612275. 
  • ^ Rich-Edwards JW, Colditz GA, Stampfer MJ, et al. (1999). “Birthweight and the risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult women”. Ann Intern Med. 130 (4 Pt 1): 278–84. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-130-4_part_1-199902160-00005. PMID 10068385. 
  • ^ Li, Yanping; Ley, Silvia; Tobias, Deirdre; Chiuve, Stephanie; VanderWeele, Tyler (June 17, 2015). “Birth weight and later life adherence to unhealthy lifestyles in predicting type 2 diabetes: prospective cohort study”. BMJ. 351: h3673. doi:10.1136/bmj.h3672. 
  • ^ Matte TD, Bresnahan M, Begg MD, Susser E (August 2001). “Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study”. BMJ. 323 (7308): 310–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7308.310. PMC 37317 . PMID 11498487. 
  • ^ “The Future of Children – Sub-Sections”. Archived from the original on 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2007-11-28. 
  • ^ Matte TD, Bresnahan M, Begg MD, Susser E (August 2001). “Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study”. BMJ. 323 (7308): 310–4. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7308.310. PMC 37317 . PMID 11498487. Lay summary – BBC News (August 9, 2001). 
  • ^ Lord C (April 2013). “Fetal and sociocultural environments and autism”. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 170 (4): 355–8. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2013.13010078. PMID 23545788. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (May 2, 2013). 
  • ^ Figlio David; Guryan Jonathan; Karbownik Krzysztof; Roth Jeffrey (2014). “The Effects of Poor Neonatal Health on Children’s Cognitive Development”. American Economic Review. 104 (12): 3921–55. doi:10.1257/aer.104.12.3921. 
  • ^ “WHO Disease and injury country estimates”. World Health Organization. 2009. Retrieved Nov 11, 2009. 
  • External links[edit]

    • MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Intrauterine growth restriction
    • Peleg D, Kennedy CM, Hunter SK (August 1998). “Intrauterine growth restriction: identification and management”. Am Fam Physician. 58 (2): 453–60, 466–7. PMID 9713399. 
    • “Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)” at Health System, University of Virginia
    • Fetal Growth Restriction at eMedicine
    • “Researchers link low birth weight to lower achievement”
    • “Management of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia”
    • “Vit D linked to baby birth weight” at BBC News, 25 April 2006
    • Born in Bradford – 2006 cohort study into the causes of low birth weight and infant mortality in Bradford, UK
    • Intrauterine Growth Restriction Help – IUGR factors and solutions

    Childbirth

    Postpartum

    Obstetric history

    • Gravidity
    • Parity
    • TPAL


    Birth price

    Not to be confused with Total fertility rate.

    Countries by crude birth rate (CBR) in 2014

    The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.[1] The rate of births in a population is calculated in several ways: live births from a universal registration system for births, deaths, and marriages; population counts from a census, and estimation through specialized demographic techniques. The birth rate (along with mortality and migration rate) are used to calculate population growth.

    The crude birth rate is the number of live births per year per 1,000 midyear population[2][3] Another term used interchangeably with birth rate is natality.[4] When the crude death rate is subtracted from the crude birth rate, the result is the rate of natural increase (RNI).[5] This is equal to the rate of population change (excluding migration).[5]

    The total (crude) birth rate (which includes all births)—typically indicated as births per 1,000 population—is distinguished from an age-specific rate (the number of births per 1,000 persons in an age group).[6] The first known use of the term “birth rate” in English occurred in 1859.[7]

    The average global birth rate is 18.5 births per 1,000 total population in 2016.[9] The death rate is 7.8 per 1,000 per year. The RNI is thus 1.06 percent. In 2012 the average global birth rate was 19.611 according to the World Bank [10] and 19.15 births per 1,000 total population according to the CIA,[11] compared to 20.09 per 1,000 total population in 2007.[12]

    The 2016 average of 18.6 births per 1,000 total population is estimated to be about 4.3 births/second or about 256 births/minute for the world.[9]

    Contents

    • 1 Political issues
    • 2 National birth rates
    • 3 Sub-Saharan Africa
    • 4 Afghanistan
    • 5 Japan
    • 6 Australia
    • 7 Coercive population control
    • 8 United States
      • 8.1 Current
        • 8.1.1 Illicit drugs
    • 9 Factors affecting birth rate
    • 10 See also
    • 11 Notes
    • 12 References
    • 13 External links

    Political issues[edit]

    In the 1970s the Singaporean government encouraged small families.

    Placard showing negative effects of lack of family planning and having too many children and infants (Ethiopia)

    The birth rate is an issue of concern and policy for national governments. Some (including those of Italy and Malaysia) seek to increase the birth rate with financial incentives or provision of support services to new mothers. Conversely, other countries have policies to reduce the birth rate (for example, China’s one-child policy which was in effect from 1978 to 2015). Policies to increase the crude birth rate are known as pro-natalist policies, and policies to reduce the crude birth rate are known as anti-natalist policies. Measures such as improved information on birth control and its availability have achieved similar results in countries such as Iran.

    There has also been discussion on whether bringing women into the forefront of development initiatives will lead to a decline in birth rates. In some countries, government policies have focused on reducing birth rates by improving women’s rights, sexual and reproductive health. Typically, high birth rates are associated with health problems, low life expectancy, low living standards, low social status for women and low educational levels. Demographic transition theory postulates that as a country undergoes economic development and social change its population growth declines, with birth rates serving as an indicator.

    At the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, Romania, women’s issues gained considerable attention. Family programs were discussed, and 137 countries drafted a World Population Plan of Action. As part of the discussion, many countries accepted modern birth control methods such as the birth control pill and the condom while opposing abortion. Population and the need to incorporate women into the discourse were discussed; it was agreed that improvements in women’s status and initiatives in defense of reproductive health and freedom, the environment, and sustainable socioeconomic development were needed.

    Birth rates ranging from 10–20 births per 1,000 are considered low, while rates from 40–50 births per 1,000 are considered high.[13] There are problems associated with both extremes. High birth rates may stress government welfare and family programs. Additional problems faced by a country with a high birth rate include educating a growing number of children, creating jobs for these children when they enter the workforce, and dealing with the environmental impact of a large population. Low birth rates may stress the government to provide adequate senior welfare systems and stress families who must support the elders themselves. There will be fewer children (and a working-age population) to support an aging population.

    National birth rates[edit]

    According to the CIA’s The World Factbook, the country with the highest birth rate is Niger (at 51.26 births per 1,000 people). The country with the lowest birth rate is Monaco, at 6.72 births per thousand.

    Compared with the 1950s (when the birth rate was 36 per thousand),[14] the birth rate has declined by 16 per thousand. In July 2011, the U.S. National Institutes of Health announced that the adolescent birth rate continues to decline.[15]

    Birth rates vary within a geographic area. In Europe as of July 2011, Ireland’s birth rate is 16.5 per 1000 (3.5 percent higher than the next-ranked country, the UK). France has a birth rate of 12.8 per thousand, while Sweden is at 12.3.[16][17]

    In July 2011, the UK’s Office for National Statistics (ONS) announced a 2.4 percent increase in live births in the UK in 2010.[18] This is the highest birth rate in the UK in 40 years.[18] However, the UK record year for births and birth rate remains 1920 (when the ONS reported over 957,000 births to a population of “around 40 million”).[19] In contrast, the birth rate in Germany is only 8.3 per thousand—so low that the UK and France (which have smaller populations) had more births in the past year.[20]

    Birth rates also vary in a geographic area among demographic groups. For example, in April 2011 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that the birth rate for women over age 40 in the U.S. rose between 2007 and 2009 and fell in every other age group during the same period.[21]

    In August 2011 Taiwan’s government announced that its birth rate declined in the previous year, despite the fact that the government implemented approaches to encourage fertility.[22]

    Niger has the highest birth rate in the world with 49.443 per thousand people.[23] Japan has one of the lowest birth rates in the world with 8 per thousand people.[24] While in Japan there are 126 million people [25] and in Niger 21 million,[26] both countries had around 1 million babies born in 2016.

    Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

    The region of Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest birth rate in the world. As of 2016, Niger, Mali, Uganda, Zambia, and Burundi have the highest birth rates in the world.[27] This is part of the fertility-income paradox, as these countries are very poor, and it may seem counter-intuitive for families there to have so many children. The inverse relationship between income and fertility has been termed a demographic-economic “paradox” by the notion that greater means would enable the production of more offspring as suggested by the influential Thomas Malthus.[28]

    Afghanistan[edit]

    Afghanistan has the 11th highest birth rate in the world, and also the highest birth rate of any non-African country (as of 2016).[27] The rapid population growth of Afghanistan is considered a problem by preventing population stabilization, and affecting maternal and infant health.[29][30] Reasons for large families include tradition, religion, the low status of women and the cultural desire to have several sons.[29][31]

    Japan[edit]

    Historic population of Japan (1920-2010) with projected population (2011-2060).

    Japan has the third lowest birth rate in the world (as of 2016), with only Saint Pierre and Miquelon and Monaco having lower births rates.[27] Japan has to deal with an unbalanced population with many elderly but few youth, and the situation is estimated to get worse in the future, unless there are major changes. An increasing number of Japanese people are staying unmarried: between 1980 and 2010, the percentage of the population who had never married increased from 22% to almost 30%, even as the population continued to age, and by 2035 one in four people will not marry during their childbearing years.[32] The Japanese sociologist Masahiro Yamada coined the term “parasite singles” for unmarried adults in their late 20s and 30s who continue to live with their parents.[33]

    Australia[edit]

    Historically, Australia has had a relatively low fertility rate, reaching a high of 3.14 births per woman in 1960.[34] This was followed by a decline which continued until the mid-2000, when a one off cash incentive was introduced to reverse the decline. In 2004, the then Howard government introduced a non-means tested ‘Maternity Payment’ to parents of every newborn as a substitute to maternity leave. The payment known as the ‘Baby Bonus’ was A$3000 per child. This rose to A$5000 which was paid in 13 instalments.[35]

    At a time when Australia’s unemployment was at a 28-year low of 5.2%, the then Treasurer Peter Costello stated there was opportunity to go lower. With a good economic outlook for Australia, Costello held the view that now was a good time to expand the population, with his famous quote that every family should have three children “one for mum, one for dad and one for the country”.[36] Australia’s fertility rate reached a peak of 1.95 children per woman in 2010, a 30-year high,[34] although still below replacement rate.

    Phil Ruthven of the business information firm IBISWorld believes the spike in fertility was more about timing and less about monetary incentives. Generation X was now aged 25 to 45 years old. With numerous women putting pregnancies off for a few years for the sake of a career, many felt the years closing in and their biological clocks ticking.[37]

    On 1 March 2014, the baby bonus was replaced with Family Tax Benefit A. By then the baby bonus had left its legacy on Australia.[38]

    In 2016, Australia’s fertility rate has only decreased slightly to 1.91 children per woman.[34]

    Coercive population control[edit]

    In the 20th century, several authoritarian governments have sought either to increase or to decrease the birth rates, often through forceful intervention. One of the most notorious natalist policies is that which occurred in communist Romania in the period of 1967-1990 during communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu, who adopted a very aggressive natalist policy which included outlawing abortion and contraception, routine pregnancy tests for women, taxes on childlessness, and legal discrimination against childless people. This period has later been depicted in movies and documentaries (such as 4 Months, 3 Weeks and 2 Days, Children of the Decree). These policies temporarily increased birth rates for a few years, but this was followed by a later decline due to an increased use of illegal abortion.[39][40] Ceaușescu’s policy resulted in over 9,000 women who died due to illegal abortions,[41] large numbers of children put into Romanian orphanages by parents who couldn’t cope with raising them, street children in the 1990s (when many orphanages were closed and the children ended on the streets), and overcrowding in homes and schools. The irony of Ceaușescu’s aggressive natalist policy was a generation that may not have been born would eventually lead the Romanian Revolution which would overthrow and have him executed.[42]

    In stark opposition with Ceaușescu’s natalist policy was China’s one child policy, in effect from 1978 to 2015, which included abuses such as forced abortions.[43] This policy has also been deemed responsible for the common practice of sex selective abortion which led to an imbalanced sex ratio in the country. Given strict family-size limitations and a preference for sons, girls have become unwanted in China because they are considered as depriving the parents of the possibility of having a son. With the progress of prenatal sex-determination technologies and induced abortion, the one-child policy gradually turned into a one-son policy.[44]

    In many countries, the steady decline in birth rates over the past decades can be greatly attributed to the significant gains in women’s freedoms, such as tackling the phenomenon of forced marriage and child marriage, education for women and increased socioeconomic opportunities. Women of all economic, social, religious and educational persuasions are choosing to have fewer children as they are gaining more control over their own reproductive rights. Apart from more children living into their adult years, women are often more ambitious to take up work, education and living their own lives rather than just a life of reproduction.[45] Birth rates in third world countries have fallen due to the introduction of family planning clinics.

    In Bangladesh, one of the poorest countries in the world, women are on average having two children less often than they did before 1999, according to Australian demographer Jack Caldwell. Bangladeshi women eagerly took up contraceptives, like condoms and the pill, on offer from a foreign population agency in a study by the World Bank carried out in 1994. The study proved that family planning could be carried out and accepted practically anywhere. Caldwell also believes that agricultural improvements led to the need for less labour. Children not needed to plough the fields would be of surplus and require some education, so in turn, smaller families, and with smaller families, women are able to work and have greater ambitions.[46]

    Burma, a country which until recently was controlled by an austere military junta, intent on controlling every aspect of its population’s lives. The military generals wanted the countries population doubled. The women’s job was to produce babies to power the countries labour force so family planning was vehemently opposed. The women of Burma opposed this policy, and Peter McDonald of the Australian National University argues this gave rise to a black market trade in contraception, all smuggled from neighbouring Thailand.[47]

    In 1990, five years after the war ended, Iran saw the fastest recorded drop in fertility in world history. Revolution gave way to consumerism and westernization. With TVs and cars came condoms and the pill. A generation of women expected to produce soldiers in the fight against Iraq was met by the next generation of women who had a choice to enjoy some new found luxuries. In the years during the Iran/Iraq war, the women of Iran averaged about 8 children each, a ratio the hard line Islamic President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad wanted to revive. As of 2010, the birth rate of Iran is 1.7 babies per woman. Some may say this is a triumph of western values, which give women more freedoms, over an Islamic ruled state.[48]

    Islam clerics are having less influence over women in other Muslim countries also. In the past 30 years Turkey`s fertility rate of children per woman has dropped from 4.07 to 2.08. Tunisia has dropped from 4.82 to 2.14 and Morocco from 5.4 to 2.52 children per woman.[49]

    Latin America, of predominately Catholic faith, has seen the same trends in falling fertility rates. Brazilian women are having half the children they were 25 years ago with a rate of 2.2 children per woman. The Vatican is having less influence over women in other hard-line Catholic countries also. Mexico, El Salvador, Ecuador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Venezuela and Peru have all seen significant drops in fertility in the same period, all going from over six to less than three children per woman. Forty percent of married Brazilian women are choosing to get sterilised after having children but this may be a compromise as it is only one confession of sin to the church. Some may say this is a triumph of Western values, which give women more freedoms, over a Catholic state.[50]

    United States[edit]

    According to U.S. federal-government data released in March 2011, births fell four percent from 2007 to 2009 (the largest drop in the U.S. for any two-year period since the 1970s).[51] Births have declined for three consecutive years, and are now seven percent below the 2007 peak.[52] This drop has continued through 2010, according to data released by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics in June 2011.[53] Experts have suggested that this decline is a reflection of unfavorable economic conditions.[54] The connection between birth rate and economic conditions stems from the fact that US birth rates have fallen to levels comparable to those during the Great Depression during the 1930s.[55] A state-level look at fertility, based on a report published by the Pew Research Center in October 2011, points out the strong correlation between lower birth rates and economic distress. In 2008, North Dakota had the nation’s lowest unemployment rate (3.1 percent) and was the only state to show an increase (0.7 percent) in its birth rate. All other states either remained the same or declined.

    The research center’s study also found evidence of a correlation between economic difficulties and fertility decline by race and ethnicity. Hispanics (particularly affected by the recession) have experienced the largest fertility decline, particularly compared to Caucasians (who have less economic hardship and a smaller decline in fertility). In 2008–2009 the birth rate declined 5.9 percent for Hispanic women, 2.4 percent for African American women and 1.6 percent for white women. The relatively large birth rate declines among Hispanics mirror their relatively large economic declines, in terms of jobs and wealth. According to the statistics using the data from National Centre for Health Statistics and U.S. Census Bureau, from 2007 to 2008, the employment rate among Hispanics declined by 1.6 percentage points, compared with declines of 0.7 points for whites. The unemployment rate shows a similar pattern—unemployment among Hispanics increased 2.0 percentage points from 2007 to 2008, while for whites the increase was 0.9 percentage points. A recent report from the Pew Hispanic Center revealed that Hispanics have also been the biggest losers in terms of wealth since the beginning of the recession, with Hispanic households losing 66% of their median wealth from 2005 to 2009. In comparison, black households lost 53% of their median wealth and white households lost only 16%. In facts, Hispanics, who have been hit the hardest in terms of employment and wealth, have also experienced the largest fertility declines since the onset of the recession because the birth rate declines of Hispanic women is the highest while comparing to the White women. Since, the unemployment rate has been increasing, the birth rate decline has been decreasing.[56]

    Other factors (such as women’s labor-force participation, contraceptive technology and public policy) make it difficult to determine how much economic change affect fertility. Research suggests that much of the fertility decline during an economic downturn is a postponement of childbearing, not a decision to have fewer (or no) children; people plan to “catch up” to their plans of bearing children when economic conditions improve. Younger women are more likely than older women to postpone pregnancy due to economic factors, since they have more years of fertility remaining.[57]

    In 2013, teenage birth rates in the U.S. were at the lowest level in U.S. history.[58] Teen birth rates in the U.S. have decreased from 1991 through 2012 (except for an increase from 2005–2007).[58] The other aberration from this otherwise-steady decline in teen birth rates is the six percent decrease in birth rates for 15- to 19-year-olds between 2008 and 2009.[58] Despite the decrease, U.S. teen birth rates remain higher than those in other developed nations.[58] Racial differences affect teen birth and pregnancy rates: American Indian/Alaska Native, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic black teen pregnancy rates are more than double the non-Hispanic white teenage birth rate.[59]

    Current[edit]

    States strict in enforcing child support have up to 20 percent fewer unmarried births than states that are lax about getting unmarried dads to pay, the researchers found. Moreover, according to the results, if all 50 states in the United States had done at least as well in their enforcement efforts as the state ranked fifth from the top, that would have led to a 20 percent reduction in out-of-wedlock births.[60]

    The United States population growth is at an historical low level as the United States current birth rates are the lowest ever recorded.[61] The low birth rates in the contemporary United States can possibly be ascribed to the recession, which led women to postpone having children and fewer immigrants coming to the US. The current US birth rates are not high enough to maintain the size of the U.S. population, according to The Economist.[62][63]

    Illicit drugs[edit]

    In the United States, amphetamines such as methamphetamine have attributes that greatly reduce ones sexual interests, which may or may not have effects on birth rate.[64] Opioid usage has resulted in an 80% increase of biological damage in Denver, Colorado, as the vast majority of these newborn Americans are born addicted to these substances and suffer opioid withdrawals upon entering the world.[65]

    Factors affecting birth rate[edit]

    Main article: Fertility factor (demography)

    Human Development Index map. Darker is higher. Countries with a higher HDI usually have a lower birth rate, known as the fertility-income paradox.

    There are many factors that interact in complex ways, influencing the births rate of a population. Developed countries have a lower birth rate than underdeveloped countries (see Income and fertility). A parent’s number of children strongly correlates with the number of children that each person in the next generation will eventually have.[66] Factors generally associated with increased fertility include religiosity,[67] intention to have children,[68] and maternal support.[69] Factors generally associated with decreased fertility include wealth, education,[70] female labor participation,[71] urban residence,[72] intelligence, increased female age and (to a lesser degree) increased male age. Many of these factors however are not universal, and differ by region and social class. For instance, at a global level, religion is correlated with increased fertility, but in the West less so: Scandinavian countries and France are among the least religious in the EU, but have the highest TFR, while the opposite is true about Portugal, Greece, Cyprus, Poland and Spain. (see Religion in the European Union).[73]

    Reproductive health can also affect the birth rate, as untreated infections can lead to fertility problems, as can be seen in the “infertility belt” – a region that stretches across central Africa from the United Republic of Tanzania in the east to Gabon in the west, and which has a lower fertility than other African regions.[74][75]

    Child custody laws, affecting fathers’ parental rights over their children from birth until child custody ends at age 18, may have an effect on the birth rate. U.S. states strict in enforcing child support have up to 20 percent fewer unmarried births than states that are lax about getting unmarried fathers to pay, the researchers found. Moreover, according to the results, if all 50 states in the United States had done at least as well in their enforcement efforts as the state ranked fifth from the top, that would have led to a 20 percent reduction in out-of-wedlock births.[60]

    See also[edit]

    • Death rate
    • Human overpopulation
    • Human population control
    • Population aging
    • Population decline
    • Total fertility rate

    Case studies

    • Aging of Europe
    • Aging of Japan

    Lists

    • List of sovereign states and dependent territories by birth rate
    • List of sovereign states and dependent territories by fertility rate

    Organizations

    • Population Matters (formerly known as the Optimum Population Trust)

    Notes[edit]

  • ^ “World Birth rate – Demographics”. Indexmundi.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Data – Population and Demographic Indicators”. econ.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-02-26. 
  • ^ See “Fertility rates”; Economic Geography Glossary at University of Washington
  • ^ “birthrate – definition of birthrate by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia”. Thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ a b “Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) | Data | Table”. Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “birthrate: Definition from”. Answers.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Birthrate – Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary”. Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “UNdata: Crude birth rate (per 1,000 population)”. United Nations. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ a b “CIA World Factbook. (Search for ‘People and Society’)”. 2016. 
  • ^ “Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) | Data”. Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ Staff (2012). “FIELD LISTING :: BIRTH RATE”. Central Intelligence Agency – The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  • ^ Staff (Dec 6, 2007). “FIELD LISTING – BIRTH RATE”. Central Intelligence Agency – The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 1 November 2012. 
  • ^ “Fertility and Birth Rates”. Child Trends. 2015-03-24. Retrieved 2016-05-17. 
  • ^ “Crude Birth Rates – The World and its Major Regions, 1950–2050”. uneca.org. Archived from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Federal report shows drop in adolescent birth rate, July 7, 2011 News Release – National Institutes of Health (NIH)”. Nih.gov. 7 July 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Susan Daly. “Ireland has one of highest birth and lowest death rates in EU · TheJournal”. Thejournal.ie. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Crude birth rate (Per 1000 person)”. Eurostat. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  • ^ a b Press Association (13 July 2011). “Call for more midwives as birth rate reaches 40-year high | Society | guardian.co.uk”. The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Michael Blastland (2 February 2012). “Go Figure: When was the real baby boom?”. BBC news magazine. Retrieved 5 April 2012. 
  • ^ “Germany faces up to its kinder surprise”. The Irish Times. 9 August 2011. 
  • ^ the CNN Wire staff (1 April 2011). “CDC records rise in birth rate for women over 40”. CNN. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Sui, Cindy (15 August 2011). “BBC News – Taiwanese birth rate plummets despite measures”. BBC. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) | Data”. Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “Birth rate, crude (per 1,000 people) | Data”. Data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “Population Pyramid of Japan in 2016”. Populationpyramid.net. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “Population Pyramid of Niger in 2016”. Populationpyramid.net. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ a b c “The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ Malthus, Thomas Robert (1826), An Essay on the Principle of Population (6 ed.), London: John Murray, archived from the original on 28 August 2013 
  • ^ a b “Afghanistan: Population Boom Threatens Stabilization Chances”. EurasiaNet.org. 2011-08-09. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “IRIN | High birth rate killing mothers, infants – UNFPA expert”. Irinnews.org. 2008-07-14. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “AFGHANISTAN: Large families encouraged by culture as well as religion | Women News Network / WNN Global”. Womennewsnetwork.net. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ Yoshida, Reiji (31 December 2015). “Japan’s population dilemma, in a single-occupancy nutshell”. The Japan Times. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  • ^ Wiseman, Paul (2004-06-02). “USATODAY.com – No sex please we’re Japanese”. Usatoday30.usatoday.com. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ a b c Staff (2016-10-23). “Australian Population”. www.worldometers.info. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 
  • ^ Staff (2013-05-15). “The Baby Bonus Generation”. www.mccrindle.com.au. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 
  • ^ Costello, Peter (2004-12-09). “ABC TV Transcript”. www.abc.net.au. Australian Broadcast Commission. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 
  • ^ Ruthven, Phil (2007-06-27). “ABC Radio Transcript”. www.abc.net.au. Australian Broadcast Commission. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 
  • ^ Staff (2013-05-15). “The McCrindle Blog”. www.mccrindle.com.au. Retrieved 2016-10-23. 
  • ^ “Europe the continent with the lowest fertility | Human Reproduction Update | Oxford Academic”. Humupd.oxfordjournals.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ Mihai Horga1; Caitlin Gerdts; Malcolm Potts. “The remarkable story of Romanian women’s struggle to manage their fertility | Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Healthcare”. Jfprhc.bmj.com. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ Kligman, Gail. “Political Demography: The Banning of Abortion in Ceausescu’s Romania”. In Ginsburg, Faye D.; Rapp, Rayna, eds. Conceiving the New World Order: The Global Politics of Reproduction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1995 :234-255. Unique Identifier : AIDSLINE KIE/49442.
  • ^ Levitt & Dubner, Steven & Stephen (2005). Freakonomics. 80 Strand, London WC2R ORL England: Penguin Group. p. 107. ISBN 9780141019017 – via Clays Ltd. 
  • ^ “China forced abortion photo sparks outrage – BBC News”. Bbc.com. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ Bulte, E., Heerink, N., & Zhang, X. (2011). “China’s one-child policy and ‘the mystery of missing women’: ethnic minorities and male-biased sex ratios”. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics. 73 (1): 0305–9049. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0084.2010.00601.x. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  • ^ Pearse, Fred (2010). People Quake. 61-63 Uxbridge Road, London W5 5SA: Eden Project Books. pp. P131. ISBN 9781905811342 – via A Random House Group Company. 
  • ^ Pearse, Fred (2010). People Quake. 61-63 Uxbridge Road, London W5 5SA: Eden Project Books. pp. P133–136. ISBN 9781905811342 – via A Random House Group Company. 
  • ^ Pearse, Fred (2010). People Quake. 61-63 Uxbridge Road, London W5 5SA: Eden Project Books. pp. P136. ISBN 9781905811342 – via A Random House Group Company. 
  • ^ Pearse, Fred (2010). People Quake. 61-63 Uxbridge Road, London W5 5SA: Eden Project Books. pp. P137–139. ISBN 9781905811342 – via A Random House Group Company. 
  • ^ Staff (22 October 2016). “worldmeters”. www.worldmeters.info. Retrieved 2016-10-22. 
  • ^ Pearse, Fred (2010). People Quake. 61-62 Uxbridge Road, London W5 5SA: Eden Project Books. pp. P140. ISBN 9781905811342 – via A Random House Group Company. 
  • ^ Roan, Shari (31 March 2011). “Us Birth Rate | U.S. birth rate: Drop in birth rate is the biggest in 30 years – Los Angeles Times”. Articles.latimes.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Bill McBride (12 August 2011). “America’s Birth Rate Declined For The Third Year Running”. Businessinsider.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Bill McBride (12 August 2011). “America’s Birth Rate Declined For The Third Year Running”. Businessinsider.com. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Economic turmoil taking its toll on childbearing”. USA Today. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ “Lower birth rate blamed on the economy”. wzzm13.com. 12 August 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ Livingston, Gretchen. “In a Down Economy, Fewer Births”. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 29 March 2017. 
  • ^ “In a Down Economy, Fewer Births | Pew Research Center”. Pewsocialtrends.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ a b c d “About Teen Pregnancy”. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 12 May 2015. 
  • ^ “CDC Data & Statistics | Feature: Teen Birth Rates Declined Again in 2009”. Cdc.gov. 1 July 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  • ^ a b “uwnews.org | Tough child support laws may deter single men from becoming fathers, study finds | University of Washington News and Information”. Archived from the original on 2007-05-05. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “Baby bust: U.S. births at record low”. CNN. September 6, 2014. 
  • ^ “Population gains at near-historic lows”. The Washington Post. April 19, 2014. 
  • ^ “U.S. Birth Rate Not High Enough To Keep Population Stable”. The Huffington Post. April 19, 2014. 
  • ^ http://goaskalice.columbia.edu/answered-questions/adderall-and-sexual-side-effects
  • ^ http://www.denverpost.com/2017/11/29/colorado-newborn-opioid-withdrawal/
  • ^ Murphy, Michael (2013). “Cross-National Patterns of Intergenerational Continuities in Childbearing in Developed Countries”. Biodemography and Social Biology. 59 (2): 101–126. doi:10.1080/19485565.2013.833779. ISSN 1948-5565. 
  • ^ Hayford, S. R.; Morgan, S. P. (2008). “Religiosity and Fertility in the United States: The Role of Fertility Intentions”. Social Forces. 86 (3): 1163. doi:10.1353/sof.0.0000. PMC 2723861 . 
  • ^ Lars Dommermuth; Jane Klobas; Trude Lappegård (2014). “Differences in childbearing by time frame of fertility intention. A study using survey and register data from Norway”.  Part of the research project Family Dynamics, Fertility Choices and Family Policy (FAMDYN)
  • ^ Schaffnit, S. B.; Sear, R. (2014). “Wealth modifies relationships between kin and women’s fertility in high-income countries”. Behavioral Ecology. 25 (4): 834–842. doi:10.1093/beheco/aru059. ISSN 1045-2249. 
  • ^ Rai, Piyush Kant; Pareek, Sarla; Joshi, Hemlata (2013). “Regression Analysis of Collinear Data using r-k Class Estimator: Socio-Economic and Demographic Factors Affecting the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in India” (PDF). Journal of Data Science. 11. 
  • ^ Bloom, David; Canning, David; Fink, Günther; Finlay, Jocelyn (2009). “Fertility, female labor force participation, and the demographic dividend”. Journal of Economic Growth. 14 (2): 79–101. doi:10.1007/s10887-009-9039-9. 
  • ^ Sato, Yasuhiro (30 July 2006), “Economic geography, fertility and migration” (PDF), Journal of Urban Economics, retrieved 31 March 2008 
  • ^ “Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table”. Ec.europa.eu. 2016-08-11. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  • ^ “WHO – Mother or nothing: the agony of infertility”. www.who.int. 
  • ^ Collet, M; Reniers, J; Frost, E; Gass, R; Yvert, F; Leclerc, A; Roth-Meyer, C; Ivanoff, B; Meheus, A (1988). “Infertility in Central Africa: infection is the cause”. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 26: 423–8. doi:10.1016/0020-7292(88)90340-2. PMID 2900173. 
  • References[edit]

    • United Nations World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision Population Database
    • Audrey, Clark (1985). Longman Dictionary of Geography, Human and Physical. New York: Longman. 
    • Douglas, Ian; Richard Huggett (2007). Companion Encyclopedia of Geography. New York: Routledge. 
    • Norwood, Carolette. “Re-thinking the integration of women in population development initiatives” Development in Practice. 19.7(2009):906 – 911.
    • World Birth rate by IndexMundi
    • http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=fertility-and-birth-rates

    External links[edit]

    Media related to Birth and death rates at Wikimedia Commons

    • CIA World Factbook Birth Rate List by Rank


    Breakbot – Baby I’m Yours (feat. Irfane) – HD

    https://vimeo.com/12428605!.?.!Ed Banger Records mores than happy to reveal the launch of BREAKBOT task Irfane” Baby I’m Yours” video clip! It was( guided) handmade by IRINA DAKEVA @ WIZZ It is composed of approx 2000 images watercolor repainted one after another( we say Aquarelle in french, way a lot more attractive). In the meantime, we placed out a new 10″ consisting of the initial as well as a special remix by Aeroplane. INFANT I’M YOURS EP AVAILABLE ON: iTunes US: http://bit.ly/cf0jb2 iTunes UK: http://bit.ly/bq0ayn iTunes FR: http://bit.ly/995oeN iTunes DE: http://bit.ly/d2PPSk iTunes JP: http://bit.ly/bPxZC9 Beatport: http://bit.ly/9rbc9G AEROPLANE REMIX ON: Beatport: http://bit.ly/by9TZZ BREAKBOT ON: Facebook: http://bit.ly/c2eSZZ MySpace: http://mysp.ac/9Ew6pP

    Review: In ‘Birth of the Dragon,’ Young Bruce Lee Meets a Master

    Review: In ‘Birth of the Dragon,’ Young Bruce Lee Meets a Master

    The film focuses on an early chapter in the martial-arts superstar’s life, when he battled a Shaolin monk in the Bay Area.

    Proposal Would Add ‘X’ Category to NYC Birth Certificates

    People born in New York City who don’t identify their gender as either male or female would have the option of choosing a third category for their birth certificates under a new proposal.

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    BIRTH

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    Birth

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    personaje original creado por mi inspirado en las novela warriors original character created by me inspired by the novel warriors

    Birth certification

    Mary Elizabeth Winblad (1895-1987) birth certificate

    A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term “birth certificate” can refer to either the original document certifying the circumstances of the birth or to a certified copy of or representation of the ensuing registration of that birth. Depending on the jurisdiction, a record of birth might or might not contain verification of the event by such as a midwife or doctor.

    Contents

    • 1 History and contemporary times
    • 2 Australia
    • 3 Canada
      • 3.1 Types of certified copies issued
    • 4 China
    • 5 England and Wales
      • 5.1 Pre-1837 birth and baptism records
      • 5.2 Types of certified copies issued in England and Wales
    • 6 India
    • 7 Russia
      • 7.1 Filling
      • 7.2 The procedure for obtaining
    • 8 United States
      • 8.1 Types of certified copies issued
        • 8.1.1 Acceptance of short forms
        • 8.1.2 Other forms
        • 8.1.3 Birth certificates in cases of adoptions
    • 9 See also
    • 10 References

    History and contemporary times[edit]

    A Soviet birth certificate from 1972.

    The documentation of births is a practice widely held throughout human civilization, especially in China, Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Persia. The original purpose of vital statistics was for tax purposes and for the determination of available military manpower. In England, births were initially registered with churches, who maintained registers of births. This practice continued into the 19th century.[1] The compulsory registration of births with the United Kingdom government is a practice that originated at least as far back as 1853.[2] The entire United States did not get a standardized system until 1902.[3]

    Most countries have statutes and laws that regulate the registration of births. In all countries, it is the responsibility of the mother’s physician, midwife, hospital administrator, or the parents of the child to see that the birth is properly registered with the appropriate government agency.

    The actual record of birth is stored with a government agency. That agency will issue certified copies or representations of the original birth record upon request, which can be used to apply for government benefits, such as passports. The certification is signed and/or sealed by the registrar or other custodian of birth records, who is commissioned by the government.

    The right of every child to a name and nationality, and the responsibility of national governments to achieve this are contained in Articles 7 and 8 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: “The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality…” (CRC Article 7) and “States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations…” (CRC Article 8).[4]

    …it’s a small paper but it actually establishes who you are and gives access to the rights and the privileges, and the obligations, of citizenship.

    — Archbishop Desmond Tutu, February 2005[5]

    Despite 191 countries ratifying the Convention, the births of millions of children worldwide go unregistered. By their very nature, data concerning unregistered children are approximate. About 29% of countries don’t have available or sufficient data to assess global progress towards the SDG goal of universal coverage. [6] However, from the data that is available, UNICEF estimates that more than a quarter of children under 5 worldwide are unregistered.[7] The lowest levels of birth registration are found in sub-Saharan Africa (43 percent). This phenomenon disproportionately impacts poor households and indigenous populations. Even in many developed countries, it contributes to difficulties in fully accessing civic rights.[8]

    Birth registration opens the door to rights to children and adults which many other human beings take for granted: to prove their age; to prove their nationality; to receive healthcare; to go to school; to take exams; to be adopted; to protection from under-age military service or conscription; to marry; to open a bank account; to hold a driving licence; to obtain a passport; to inherit money or property; and to vote or stand for elected office.[9]

    There are many reasons why births go unregistered, including social and cultural beliefs and attitudes; alternative documents and naming ceremonies; remote areas, poor infrastructure; economic barriers; lack of office staff, equipment and training; legal and political restrictions; fear of discrimination and persecution; war, conflict and unrest or simply the fact that there is no system in place.[9][10][11][12][13][14]

    Retrospective registration may be necessary where there is a backlog of children whose births have gone unregistered. In Senegal, the government is facilitating retrospective registration through free local court hearings and the number of unregistered children has fallen considerably as a result. In Sierra Leone, the government gave the National Office of Births and Deaths special permission to issue birth certificates to children over seven. In Bolivia, there was a successful three-year amnesty for the free registration of young people aged between 12 and 18.[15]

    Statelessness, or the lack of effective nationality, impacts the daily lives of some 11-12 million people around the world. Perhaps those who suffer most are stateless infants, children, and youth. Though born and raised in their parents’ country of habitual residence, they lack formal recognition of their existence.[16]

    Australia[edit]

    Specimen birth certificate issued by the Australian Capital Territory

    States and territories of Australia are responsible for the issuance of birth certificates, through agencies generally titled “Registry of Births Deaths and Marriages” or similar.[17]

    Initially registering a birth is done by a hospital through a “Birth Registration Statement” or similar, signed by appropriately licensed and authorized health professionals, and provided to the state or territory registry. Home births are permitted, but a statement is required from a registered midwife, doctor or 2 other witnesses other than the parents. Unplanned births require in some states that the baby be taken to a hospital within 24 hours.[18] Once registered, a separate application (sometimes it can be done along with the Birth Registration Statement) can be made for a birth certificate, generally at a cost. The person named or a parent can apply for a certificate at any time.[19] Generally, there is no restriction on re-applying for a certificate at a later date, so it could be possible to legally hold multiple original copies.

    The Federal government requires that births be also registered through a “Proof of Birth Declaration” similarly signed as above by a doctor or midwife. This ensures the appropriate benefits can be paid, and the child is enrolled for Medicare.[20]

    The state or territory issued birth certificate is a secure A4 paper document, generally listing: Full name at birth, sex at birth, parents and occupation, older siblings, addresses, date and place of birth, name of the registrar, date of registration, date of issue of certificate, a registration number, with the signature of the registrar and seal of the registry printed and or embossed. Most states allow for stillbirths to be issued a birth certificate. Some states issue early pregnancy loss certificates (without legal significance if before 20 weeks).[21] Depending on the state, amendments are allowed to correct the certificate, add parents, recognizing same-sex relationships,[22] changing the sex of the holder is also permitted in some states.[23]

    The full birth certificate in Australia is an officially recognized identity document generally in the highest category.[24] The birth certificate assists in establishing citizenship. Shorter and/or commemorative birth certificates are available, however, are not generally acceptable for identification purposes.[25]

    Birth certificates in Australia can be verified online by approved agencies through the Attorney-General’s Department Document Verification Service[26] and can be used to validate identity digitally, e.g. online.

    Canada[edit]

    In Canada, the issuance of birth certificates is a function of the provinces or territories.[27]

    Agencies or various ministers are in charge of issuing birth certificates:[28]

    • Alberta – Department of Vital Statistics (Service Alberta)
    • British Columbia – Vital Statistics Agency (Ministry of Health)
    • Manitoba – Vital Statistics Agency (Ministry of Healthy Living, Seniors, and Consumer Affairs/Consumer and Corporate Affairs)
    • New Brunswick – Vital Statistics (Service New Brunswick)
    • Newfoundland and Labrador – Vital Statistics Government Services (Service NL)
    • Northwest Territories – Vital Statistics (Department of Health and Social Services – Health Services Administration Division)
    • Nova Scotia – Registrar General Division of Vital Statistics (Service Nova Scotia and Municipal Relations)
    • Nunavut – Registrar General of Vital Statistics (Nunavut Health and Social Services)
    • Ontario – Office of Registrar General-Service Ontario (Ministry of Government Services)
    • Prince Edward Island – Vital Statistics (Health and Social Services)
    • Quebec – Director of Civil State (Minister of Justice)
    • Saskatchewan – Vital Statistics-Information Service Corporation (Department of Health)
    • Yukon – Vital Statistics (Ministry of Health and Social Services – Health Services)

    Types of certified copies issued[edit]

    There are three types of birth certificates issued:

    • Copy of an act – Contains all information available on the birth of a person.
    • Long-form – legal size or two-page form with details of the person, their parents’, place of birth, certification by the parents, signature, and stamp of the issuing agency or department. Recent forms are in English and French.
    • Short form or card – provides name, birth date, place of birth, date of registration, date of issue, registration number, certificate number, and signature of registrar general

    China[edit]

    The People’s Republic of China issued its first birth certificate on January 1, 1996. The birth certificate used currently is the fifth edition, which was adopted since January 1, 2014.[29] Still, China, the world’s most populous country, is among those with no globally comparable data, presenting challenges to researchers who wish to assess global and regional progress towards universal birth registration. [30]

    England and Wales[edit]

    Specimen England and Wales Long Birth Certificate

    In England and Wales, the description “birth certificate” is used to describe a certified copy of an entry in the birth register.[31]

    Civil registration of births, marriages and deaths in England and Wales started on 1 July 1837.[32] Registration was not compulsory until 1875, following the Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1874, which made registration of a birth the responsibility of those present at the birth.[33]

    When a birth is registered, the details are entered into the register book at the local register office for the district in which the birth took place and is retained permanently in the local register office. A copy of each entry in the birth register is sent to the General Register Office (GRO).[34]

    Pre-1837 birth and baptism records[edit]

    Before the government’s registration system was created, evidence of births and/or baptisms (and also marriages and death or burials) was dependent on the events being recorded in the records of the Church of England or in those of other various churches – not all of which maintained such records or all types of those records. Copies of such records are not issued by the General Register Office; but can be obtained from these churches, or from the local or national archive, which usually now keeps the records in original or copy form.

    Types of certified copies issued in England and Wales[edit]

    There are two types of birth certificates:

    A full certificate, titled ‘CERTIFIED COPY OF AN ENTRY’ is a copy of the original entry in the birth register, giving all the recorded details.[35] Information includes; name, sex, date, and place of birth of the child, father’s name, place of birth and occupation, mother’s name, place of birth, maiden name, and occupation. Certificates for births before 1911 do not show the mothers maiden name before 1969 do not show the details of the parents’ place of birth and registration and before 1984 do not show mothers occupation.[36]

    The short certificate, titled ‘CERTIFICATE OF BIRTH’, shows the child’s full name, sex, date, and place of birth. It does not give any particulars of the parents; therefore it is not proof of parentage. A short birth certificate is issued, free of charge, at the time of registration.[35]

    Both versions of a certificate can be used in the verification of identity by acting as a support to other information or documentation provided. Where proof of parentage is required only a full certificate will be accepted.[37]

    The original registrations are required by law[38] to be issued in the form of certified copies to any person who identifies an index entry and pays the prescribed fee. They can be ordered by registered users from the General Register Office Certificate Ordering Service or by postal or telephone ordering from the General Register Office or by post or in person from local registrars. If the birth was registered within the past 50 years detailed information is required before a certificate will be issued.[39]

    India[edit]

    Traditionally births were poorly recorded in India.[40]

    For official purposes, other proofs are accepted in India in lieu of the birth certificate, such as matriculation certificates.[41] Facilities are available to produce a birth certificate from a passport.[42]

    By law since 1969, registration of births is compulsory as per provisions of Registration of Births & Deaths Act.[43] Birth certificates are issued by the Government of India or the municipality concerned. Specific rules vary by state, region and municipality.

    In Delhi, for example, births must be registered within 21 days by the hospital or institution, or by a family member if the birth has taken place at home. After registration, a birth certificate can be obtained by applying to the relevant authority. Certificates can also be issued under special provisions to adopted children, and undocumented orphans. Overseas births can also be registered.[44]

    Some municipalities, such as the Greater Chennai Corporation allow for fully digital birth certificates to be applied for, printed, and verified online.[45]

    Russia[edit]

    A Russian birth certificate issued in April 2011

    Earlier testimony was a small book format-bound, now it’s just a page format B5, provided with watermarks. The certificate has a series and number.

    The blank insert is made in Russian. In the case of being issued in one of the country’s republics, its national language form liner can be made in Russian and in the official language of the Republic on the model, approved by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

    Filling[edit]

    A birth certificate can be filled with a handwritten way and with the use of technical equipment (typewriters, computers). When filling in the form is carried handwritten way, all records are made legibly in ink or paste blue or black. If you are using a computer or typewriter dye must be black. The quality of paste, ink, dye, used in completing the documents should ensure the preservation of text documents for a set retention period. When filling out the birth certificate is not allowed to have it in patches, blots, and erasures, cuts.

    A birth certificate is signed by the head of the registrar or other public authority issuing the certificate (e.g., the consulate). Signature of the registrar should have a transcript (initials and surname) and sealed with the official seal.

    Currently, information about the nationality of the parents is mentioned in the certificate on request. By default, this column is empty

    When making a citizenship, a special insert is issued to the birth certificate. In testimony to Stamp.

    February 6, 2007 ear of citizenship were canceled, on the reverse side of the Certificate began to put a stamp on the child’s citizenship. This rule applies to newborns or those who change or restores documents.

    Old shells are valid for achieving a child 14 years old and to change them is not necessary.

    The procedure for obtaining[edit]

    The birth certificate of the child’s parents can get (not deprived of parental rights), itself a child of full age, guardian or caregiver. Issuance of the document is made in the offices of the registrar, ZAGS (Russian: ЗАГС).

    With the loss of the certificate, a new document is issued by the registry office (ZAGS) in the place of the original receipt on the basis of a written application.

    United States[edit]

    See also: United States nationality law, Citizenship in the United States, and Birthright citizenship in the United States

    In the U.S., the issuance of birth certificates is a function of the Vital Records Office of the states, capital district, territories[46] and former territories.[47] Birth in the U.S. establishes automatic eligibility for American citizenship, so a birth certificate from a local authority is commonly provided to the federal government to obtain a U.S. passport.[48][49] However, the U.S. State Department does issue a Consular Report of Birth Abroad for children born to U.S. citizens (who are also eligible for citizenship), including births on military bases in foreign territory.[50]

    The federal and state governments have traditionally cooperated to some extent to improve vital statistics. From 1900 to 1946 the U.S. Census Bureau designed standard birth certificates, collected vital statistics on a national basis, and generally sought to improve the accuracy of vital statistics. In 1946 that responsibility was passed to the U.S. Public Health Service. Unlike the British system of recording all births in “registers”, the states file an individual document for each and every birth.[51]

    The U.S. National Center for Health Statistics creates standard forms that are recommended for use by the individual states to document births. However, states are free to create their own forms.[52] As a result, neither the appearance nor the information content of birth certificate forms is uniform across states. These forms are completed by the attendant at birth or a hospital administrator, which are then forwarded to a local or state registrar, who stores the record and issues certified copies upon request.[1]

    In 2017, the state of Illinois began an effort to digitize birth certificates using blockchain technology.[53]

    Types of certified copies issued[edit]

    According to the Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General, as of 2000 there were more than 6,000 entities issuing birth certificates. The Inspector General report states that according to the staff at the Immigration and Naturalization Service’s Forensics Document Laboratory the number of legitimate birth certificate versions in use exceeded 14,000.[54]

    Acceptance of short forms[edit]

    In the case of applying for a U.S. passport, not all legitimate government-issued birth certificates are acceptable:

    A certified birth certificate has a registrar’s raised, embossed, impressed or multicolored seal, registrar’s signature, and the date the certificate was filed with the registrar’s office, which must be within 1 year of your birth. Please note, some short (abstract) versions of birth certificates may not be acceptable for passport purposes.

    Beginning April 1, 2011, all birth certificates must also include the full names of the applicant’s parent(s).[55]

    The U.S. State Department has paid close attention to abstract certificates from both Texas and California. There have been reports of a high incidence of midwife registration fraud along the border region between Texas and Mexico,[56][57] and the Texas abstract certificate form does not list the name or occupation of the attendant. The California Abstract of Birth did not include an embossed seal, was no longer considered a secure document, and have not been issued in California since 2001.[58]

    Other forms[edit]

    Most hospitals in the U.S. issue a souvenir birth certificate which may include the footprints of the newborn. However, these birth certificates are not legally accepted as proof of age or citizenship, and are frequently rejected by the Bureau of Consular Affairs during passport applications. Many Americans believe[citation needed] the souvenir records to be their official birth certificates when in reality they hold little legal value.[59]

    Birth certificates in cases of adoptions[edit]

    In the United States, when an adoption is finalized, the government seals the original birth certificate and will issue a replacement birth certificate substituting the individual’s birth name with the name selected by the adoptive parents, and replacing the birth parents’ names with the adoptive parents. In those cases, adopted individuals are not granted access to their own original birth certificates upon request. Laws vary depending on the state where the birth was originally registered and the adoption was finalized. Some states allow adopted people unrestricted access to their own original birth certificates, while in others the certificate is available only if the biological parents have given their permission or a petition has been granted by the court of jurisdiction. Other jurisdictions do not allow adopted people access to their own original birth certificates under any circumstances.[citation needed]

    See also[edit]

    • Birth registration in Ancient Rome
    • Birth registration campaign in Liberia
    • Closed adoption
    • Death certificate
    • Identity card
    • Marriage license
    • Passport
    • Vital record

    References[edit]

  • ^ a b Vital Records Registration Handbook Archived 11 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (Jacksonville, FL: Florida Office of Vital Statistics, 2007) 7.
  • ^ “About Us” Archived 1 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (UK General Registry Office), accessed August 2009, .
  • ^ Brumberg, H.L.; Dozor, D.; Golombek, S.G. (June 2012). “History of the birth certificate: from inception to the future of electronic data”. Journal of Perinatology. 32: 407–411. doi:10.1038/jp.2012.3. Retrieved 2 February 2016. 
  • ^ Convention on the Rights of the Child Archived 11 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, 1989), accessed 17 May 2011.
  • ^ Universal Birth Registration — A Universal Responsibility (Woking: Plan International, 2005)
  • ^ “Progress for Every Child in the SDG Era”. UNICEF. 
  • ^ “UNICEF Data – Birth Registration” (data.unicef.org) accessed 18 April 2018.
  • ^ Paula Gerba, “Making Indigenous Australians ‘disappear’: Problems arising from our birth registration systems,” Alternative Law Journal 34, no. 3 (2009): |157–162,[dead link].
  • ^ a b Count Every Child (Plan, 2009).
  • ^ The ‘Rights’ Start to Life, (New York: UNICEF).
  • ^ “Fact sheets,” (International Council of Nurses, 21 May 2010).
  • ^ UNICEF (2007) Birth Registration and Armed Conflict, Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (Florence: Innocenti Research Centre, 2007).
  • ^ Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Children and HIV and AIDS Working Group on Civil Registration, Birth and Death Registration in the Context of HIV and AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa: Human’s First and Last Right (Plan, 2008).
  • ^ “Birth Registration: A Topic Proposed for an Executive Committee Conclusion on International Protection,” (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, 9 February 2010).
  • ^ Simon Heap and Claire Cody, “The Universal Birth Registration Campaign,” Forced Migration Review, no. 32 (2009): 20-22.
  • ^ Futures Denied: Statelessness Among Infants, Children and Youth Archived 12 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. (Refugees International, 2008).
  • ^ http://www.australia.gov.au/information-and-services/family-and-community/births-deaths-and-marriages-registries
  • ^ http://www.bdm.nsw.gov.au/Pages/births/births.aspx#Registeringabirth
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  • ^ https://www.humanservices.gov.au/customer/subjects/when-your-baby-born
  • ^ http://www.bdm.nsw.gov.au/Pages/births/stillbirths.aspx
  • ^ http://www.bdm.nsw.gov.au/Pages/births/amend-birth-certificate.aspx
  • ^ http://www.bdm.nsw.gov.au/Documents/apply-for-record-a-change-of-sex.pdf
  • ^ https://www.humanservices.gov.au/sites/default/files/2016/04/ss231-1604en2.pdf
  • ^ http://www.bdm.nsw.gov.au/Pages/apply-for-certificates/commemorative-certificates.aspx#CommemorativeBirthCertificate
  • ^ http://www.dvs.gov.au/How-the-DVS-works/Pages/default.aspx
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  • ^ “Notification about initiating and standard management of new edition birth medical certificate issued by National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China and the Ministry of Public Security (Chinese)”. National Health and Family Planning Commission of the People’s Republic of China. 
  • ^ “Progress for Every Child in the SDG Era”. UNICEF. 
  • ^ Melanie Lee (14 January 2011). “GRO information on birth certificates in England and Wales” (pdf). whatdotheyno.com. General Registre Office. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  • ^ “Civil Registration in England and Wales”. genuki.org.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  • ^ “Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1874”. legislation.gov.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  • ^ “Official information on births, marriages and deaths”. General Register Office. Retrieved 7 September 2015. 
  • ^ a b “Register a Birth”. gov.uk. Government UK. 14 July 2015. Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  • ^ GRO (2015). “Information on a birth, marriage or death certificate”. gro.gov.uk. Government UK. Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  • ^ Treasury Solicitor’s Department (10 March 2014). “Proof of Identity checklist for individuals”. gov.uk. Government UK. Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  • ^ Births and Deaths Registration Act, 1953, 1 & 2 Eliz. 2, c. 1, accessed October 2011.
  • ^ GRO (2015). “Ordering a certificate for events which have taken place during the last 50 years”. gro.gov.uk. Government UK. Retrieved 8 September 2015. 
  • ^ “25% of Indian births not registered – Times of India”. The Times of India. Retrieved 30 June 2017. 
  • ^ “Passport Seva Application form”. passportindia.gov.in. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  • ^ “India Visa Information – Australia – Consular Miscellaneous Services – Issue of Birth Certificate – Basis Indian Passport”. www.vfsglobal.com. Retrieved 22 April 2017. Issuance of birth certificate to Indian nationals on the basis of valid Indian passport. 
  • ^ “Department of Dte.of Economics & Statistics”. www.delhi.gov.in. Government of NCT of Delhi. Retrieved 22 April 2017. 
  • ^ Cite error: The named reference Delhi was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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  • ^ Specifically, the Panama Canal Zone and Philippines. [1]
  • ^ |Margaret Lee, U.S. Citizenship of Persons Born in the United States to Alien Parents, Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, (UNT Digital Library, 12 May 2006).
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