South Africa Launches Notes and Coins for 100th Anniversary of Mandela's Birth

South Africa Launches Notes and Coins for 100th Anniversary of Mandela’s Birth

South Africa on Friday launched a set of limited edition bank notes and gold coins to mark the 100th anniversary on July 18 of the birth of Nelson Mandela.

Bayer to Stop Sales of Birth Control Device Tied to Injuries

The maker of a permanent contraceptive implant subject to thousands of injury reports and repeated safety restrictions by regulators said Friday that it will stop selling the device in the U.S., the only country where it remains available.

Gay birth

Gay birth

It’s also my bestfriends birthday ! (Funny, right?)

Happy Birth

Happy late birthday thing for my main CrowCasino  also casual return of my old sona Amber. 

Happy Birth

WhirlCore happy birthday >w hope you had a great time!

Hap Birth

have a good day gingerhatescake, I hope ish a goud one since Im in it jkjkjk

Happy birth

Late present for haha, I’m sorry fReN

hap birth

hap birth

its was her bday yesterday whoopS  i treat my ocs well also, im (temporarily) back and now I’m go n e 

Hap Birth

i was gonna make my teacher a birthday gift that includes him have a cake in the face but i remembered that he knows my da accounts so i just aborted the mission but, thE DAY U CAME OUT OF THE WOMB IS NEARR jfc i regret saying that

Happy Birth

So it9s Splair 9s birthday so have a thing! This didn9t take 2 hours I swear

Birth Canal

ren9s birth

is tomorrow, for me, but fuck that lmao. heres the whole pic idk if it counts as waist or knee up but this is 110 if waist and 120 if knee

Baby Gangster / 2014!.?.!Director: Luke Monaghan Manufacturer: Nathaniel Greene DP: Benjamin Kitchens Editor: Paul O’Reilly @ Stitch Colourist: Ricky Gausis
@ MPC Audio Design: Ari Balouzian First
Air Conditioner: Jake Bianco Sound Recordist: Rob Reider Manufacturing Co-Ordinator: Chris Greene Titles: Ruff Mercy Music: A$ AP Rocky, Tev’ n. Exec Producers: Mal Ward, Marc Marrie. Manufacturing Company: Arts & Sciences.

Kill The Baby Ep. 1

Composed, Directed & Produced by Alex Kavutskiy & Ariel Gardner. DP Nate Cornett. Edited by Ariel Gardner.
David Geis as Isaac
. Erin McGathy as Julie.

Danielle Billeaux as Maria.
Nancy Kronig as Mom.
Flip McManus as The Baby. and the voice of Demorge Brown. Original Music by Jason Martin Castillo.

Songs blended by Melinda Garcia.

Score generated by Jason Martin Castillo and also Melinda Garcia with Sounds of the Sun Productions. Take a look at ball game below:

Smartphones birth

Smartphones birth

(function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i[‘GoogleAnalyticsObject’]=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){ (i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o), m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m) })(window,document,’scr…

Spring birth

Marks birth

Habby Birth

its my friends birthday but I’m like three days late

Virgin Birth

Something doesn’t quite add up here…



How long have you lived in this world and when will you die? What do you wish to accomplish before death? This is a app about life and death of life. It’s a heavy topic.It reminds you to live in the moment,As the poet said: “You should see the sun, when you c…

Skeletors birth

Always wanted this since I have the 2000 MOTU figure.


late birthday gift for Finchwing and Simatra


A birthday gift for my friend and mutual dollieguts !!! Hope you have a good day! COMMISSIONS | REDBUBBLE |

The Birth

Rapper Cardi B Gives Birth to Girl With Husband Offset

Rapper Cardi B Gives Birth to Girl With Husband Offset

Rapper Cardi B has given birth to her first child, a baby girl, with her rapper husband Offset, according to an announcement she posted to Instagram on Wednesday.

Gender Change on Birth Certificates Now Easier in New Jersey

It’s now easier for New Jersey transgender residents to change their genders on their birth certificates.

Tracing Nelson Mandela's Footsteps 100 Years After His Birth

Tracing Nelson Mandela’s Footsteps 100 Years After His Birth

July 18 marks 100 years since the birth of Nelson Mandela, who died in 2013.

Google’s Parent Births New Businesses: Balloons and Drones

The lab at Alphabet, Google’s parent company, has graduated two projects — one to build delivery drones and another making internet-beaming balloons — into independent businesses.


This article is about gemstones associated with a person’s birth date. For the magic stone which is supposed to make birth easier, see Aetites.

A birthstone is a gemstone that represents a person’s month of birth. Birthstones are often worn as jewelry and as pendants.

Some common birthstones


  • 1 History of birthstones
    • 1.1 Western custom
      • 1.1.1 Traditional birthstones
      • 1.1.2 Modern birthstones
      • 1.1.3 Eastern Traditions
  • 2 Birthstones by cultures
  • 3 Zodiacal
    • 3.1 Tropical zodiac
  • 4 Birthday (day of the week) stones
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

History of birthstones[edit]

Western custom[edit]

The first century Jewish historian Josephus believed there was a connection between the twelve stones in Aaron’s breastplate (signifying the tribes of Israel, as described in the Book of Exodus), the twelve months of the year, and the twelve signs of the zodiac.[1] Translations and interpretations of the passage in Exodus regarding the breastplate have varied widely, with Josephus himself giving two different lists for the twelve stones.[2] George Kunz argues that Josephus saw the breastplate of the Second Temple, not the one described in Exodus. St. Jerome, referencing Josephus, said the Foundation Stones of the New Jerusalem (Revelation 21:19–20) would be appropriate for Christians to use.[3]

In the eighth and ninth century, religious treatises associating a particular stone with an apostle were written, so that “their name would be inscribed on the Foundation Stones, and his virtue.”[4] Practice became to keep twelve stones and wear one a month.[5] The custom of wearing a single birthstone is only a few centuries old, though modern authorities differ on dates. Kunz places the custom in eighteenth century Poland, while the Gemological Institute of America starts it in Germany in the 1560s.[6]

Recreation of the high priest’s breastplate in front of the central Sephardic synagogue in Ramat Gan, Israel

Modern lists of birthstones have little to do with either the breastplate or the Foundation Stones of Christianity. Tastes, customs and confusing translations have distanced them from their historical origins,[7] with one author calling the 1912 Kansas list (see below) “nothing but a piece of unfounded salesmanship.”[8]

Traditional birthstones[edit]

Ancient traditional birthstones are society-based birthstones. The table below contains many stones which are popular choices, often reflecting Polish tradition.[9]

There are poems which match each month of the Gregorian calendar with a birthstone. These are traditional stones of English-speaking societies. Tiffany & Co. published these poems “of unknown author” for the first time in a pamphlet in 1870.[10]

Modern birthstones[edit]

In 1912, in an effort to standardize birthstones, the (American) National Association of Jewelers (now called Jewelers of America) met in Kansas and officially adopted a list.[11] The Jewelry Industry Council of America updated the list in 1952[12] by adding Alexandrite for June, citrine for November and pink tourmaline for October. They also replaced December’s lapis with zircon and switched the primary/alternative gems for March. The American Gem Trade Association added tanzanite as a December birthstone in 2002.[13] In 2016, the American Gem Trade Association and Jewelers of America added spinel as an additional birthstone for August. [14] Britain’s National Association of Goldsmiths created their own standardized list of birthstones in 1937.[15]

Eastern Traditions[edit]

Eastern cultures recognize a similar range of gemstones associated with birth, though rather than associating a gem with a birth month, gemstones are associated with celestial bodies, and astrology is employed to determine the gemstones most closely associated with and beneficial to a particular individual. For example, in Hinduism there are nine gemstones associated with the Navagraha (celestial forces including the planets, the sun, and the moon), known in Sanskrit as Navaratna (nine gems). At birth, an astrological chart is calculated, and certain stones are recommended to be worn on the body to ward off potential problems based on the place of these forces in the sky at the exact place and time of birth.[16]

Birthstones by cultures[edit]


Tropical zodiac[edit]

Birthday (day of the week) stones[edit]

While the term “birthday stone” is sometimes used as a synonym for birthstone, each day of the week is also assigned a unique gemstone and these assignments are distinct from the monthly assignments.[1]

See also[edit]

  • Birth flower
  • Gemstones


  • ^ a b Kunz, George F. (1913). The curious lore of precious stones. Lippincott. pp. 275–306. 
  • ^ Gleadow, Rupert (2001). The Origin of the Zodiac. Dover Publications. pp. 130–131. 
  • ^ Knuth, Bruce G. (2007). Gems in Myth, Legend and Lore (Revised edition). Parachute: Jewelers Press. p. 294. 
  • ^ Knuth, p. 299
  • ^ Knuth, p. 298
  • ^ Knuth, p. 293
  • ^ Knuth, p. 310
  • ^ Gleadow, p. 132
  • ^ Kunz (1913), p. 320
  • ^ Farrington, Oliver Cummins (1903). Gems and Gem Minerals. Mumford. pp. 63–64. 
  • ^ Kunz (1913), p. 317
  • ^ Knuth, p. 311
  • ^ Grande, Lance; Augustyn, Allison (2009). Gems and Gemstones: Timeless Natural Beauty of the Mineral World. University of Chicago Press. p. 335. ISBN 0226305112. 
  • ^ National Jeweler Magazine, “JA, AGTA Add Spinel as August Birthstone”
  • ^ Osborne, Harold, ed. (1985). The Oxford Companion to the Decorative Arts. Oxford University Press. p. 513. ISBN 978-0192818638. 
  • ^ Johari, Harish (1986). The Healing Power of Gemstones: In Tantra, Ayurveda, and Astrology. Destiny Books. pp. 15–34. 
  • ^ Kunz (1913), p. 315
  • ^ Kunz (1913), pp. 319-320
  • ^ “Tips & Tools: Birthstones”. The National Association of Goldsmiths. Archived from the original on 2007-05-28. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  • ^ Knuth, p. 318
  • ^ Kunz (1913), pp. 345–347
  • External links[edit]

    • Jewelers of America leaflet
    • The Curious Lore of Precious Stones, G.F. Kunz – full text online version
    • Gems and Gem Minerals, Oliver Cummings Farrington – full text online version



    so these macaroni9s had their birthday some days ago so here is another intro to more oc9s. the black and white one is monotone and the yellow one is polygon, both are S class. monotone is suposed to be more like a bombay and polygon is a javanese! also tomor…



    it was phil’s birthday yesterday and i forgot


    the warriors series came out 15 years ago in all seriousness, i wouldnt be an artist if i never read this series sooooo ur welc also i feel like this would look better without the writing but????????? that capital s took too long so its staying

    Snail Gives Birth – Birth of a Snail

    A Snail gives birth in Nicosia Cyprus. Filmed in Nature by Marcus Platrides. Film has been speeded up by 4 times. I have the original if anyone is interested. Copyright Marcus Platrides 2016.



    it is the day of birth


    Fun fact it started off as sperm cells


    A birthday gift for CoffeeJan


    o hye i can learn how to driv now  ni ce  also tysm for the people that wish me a happy birthday and stuff it means the world to me!! :,DD


    happy birthday dad! Andrew-Reach is the birthday boi

    Quiet birth

    Silent birth, sometimes known as quiet birth, is a birthing procedure advised by L. Ron Hubbard and advocated by Scientologists in which “everyone attending the birth should refrain from spoken words as much as possible” and where “… chatty doctors and nurses, shouts to ‘PUSH, PUSH’ and loud or laughing remarks to ‘encourage’ are avoided”.[1] According to Scientology doctrine, this is because “any words spoken are recorded in the reactive mind and can have an aberrative effect on the mother and the child.”[1] Hubbard believed that breaking the silence during childbirth with words could adversely affect the child later in life. Church members believe that noises, sounds and words while a child is being born can possibly cause trauma, which in turn causes the production of engrams, thus necessitating silent birth. Scientologists believe that it is also a way to assist a newborn in his or her development spiritually.[2]

    The concept of silent birth is a mandatory practice in Scientology doctrine. It is based upon the principle that expectant mothers must be provided the utmost care and respect and Hubbard’s words: “Everyone must learn to say nothing within the expectant mother’s hearing using labor and delivery. Particularly during birth, absolute silence must be maintained and the more gentle the delivery, the better.” Silent birth is meant to make the transition to physical separation from the mother less painful for the child. The church does not rule against medication and caesarean section births.[3] There have been no attempts to prove this medically or scientifically and[4] the church does not claim silent birth as a medical approach but a religious and philosophical one.[3]


    • 1 Scientific opinion
    • 2 Ray and Louise Spiering
    • 3 Katie Holmes
    • 4 See also
    • 5 References
    • 6 External links

    Scientific opinion[edit]

    The efficacy of silent birth has been questioned by a number of doctors and other health care professionals. Patricia Devine, MD, a maternal–fetal medicine specialist who directs the Labor and Delivery Unit at Columbia University Medical Center, said, “There’s absolutely no scientific evidence that taking [noise] away at the time of delivery will have any effect on outcome for the baby or mother.”[4]

    When asked whether there was any medical evidence that indicated that silent birth was beneficial, Damian Alagia, MD, associate clinical professor in the department of obstetrics and gynecology at George Washington University Medical Center, replied, “It may be in the Scientology literature, but it’s not in the scientific literature. In my understanding, L. Ron Hubbard never spent any time in medical school, studying pediatrics or studying neonatal development. To think that a baby born in silence is going to do any better than a baby born, say, listening to Hank Williams is just foolhardy.”[4]

    Ray and Louise Spiering[edit]

    In 2004, Scientologists Ray and Louise Spiering went to federal court to argue that Nebraska’s mandatory blood test for infants would violate their right to practice the “Silent Birth Method” of their religion. According to the lawsuit “every effort should be made to avoid subjecting the baby to loud sounds, talking, stress or pain during the first seven days of the baby’s life … Because a baby goes through so much pain during the birth process, Scientologists believe that a newborn baby should not be subjected to any further pain or significant sensory experiences.”[5]

    Katie Holmes[edit]

    The “silent birth” became an object of media interest when it was known that outspoken Scientologist actor Tom Cruise and wife Katie Holmes, who converted to Scientology from Roman Catholicism, were expecting a child. Reports that the couple would follow the practice of silent birth were denied, until photos were taken of large placards being delivered to the couple’s mansion bearing instructions for the silent birth, such as “Be silent and make all physical movements slow and understandable.”[6]

    It was often reported in the media during this time that speaking to the infant during the first week of its life was barred by Scientology doctrine as well.[7] A Church spokesperson termed this “a total fabrication.” The Church of Scientology International writes, “L. Ron Hubbard never wrote that parents should not speak to their child for seven days following birth.”[8] The same website also says “[t]he idea of silent birth is based on L. Ron Hubbard’s research into the mind and spirit. He found that words spoken during moments of pain and unconsciousness can have adverse effects on an individual later in life.”[8] The website also says “[m]others naturally want to give their baby the best possible start in life and thus keep the birth as quiet as possible.”[8]

    See also[edit]

    • Scientology portal
    • Engram


  • ^ a b Church of Scientology (2006). “Scientology Newsroom”. Archived from the original on 2006-08-13. Retrieved 2006-08-07. 
  • ^ Ashcraft-Eason, Lillian; Martin, Darnise C.; Olademo, Overonke (2010). Women and New African Religions. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780275991562. 
  • ^ a b Pande, Navodita (2016-05-01). “Silent Birth (Scientology)”. In Sange, Mary Zeiss; Oyster, Carol K. The Multimedia Encyclopedia of Women in Today’s World. SAGE Publications, Inc. doi:10.4135/9781452270388.n385. 
  • ^ a b c Shaw, Gina (2006). “Doctors Sound Off About TomKat ‘Silent Birth’ Plan”. WebMD. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  • ^ Cooper, Todd (Dec. 21, 2004). “Blood test for newborns faces religious challenge”. Omaha World-Herald
  • ^ Reuters (2006). “Giddy romance leading Holmes to silent birth: Scientologists believe baby can remember traumatic experiences”. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  • ^ MSNBC (2006). “Silent Scientology birth for Tom and Katie?: Group’s birth principles call for no music or talking during labor”. Retrieved 2006-05-07. 
  • ^ a b c Church of Scientology International (2006). “All About Silent Birth”. Retrieved 2006-05-01. 
  • External links[edit]

    • “Silent Birth Questions & Answers”. Scientology Parent. Retrieved January 17, 2017. 
    • “‘Silent Birth’: Separating Reality From Myth” (Press release). Church of Scientology. 2006-04-20. Retrieved 2006-09-26.  Made available on the web by Medical News Today.
    • “Scientology Silent Birth: ‘It’s A Natural Thing'”. An interview with Rev. John Carmichael from the Church of Scientology. Beliefnet. 
    • “‘What is Silent Birth?'”. Article by Thorsten Overgaard, father to twins delivered by Silent Birth.