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Date of birth of Jesus

The date of birth of Jesus is not stated in the gospels or in any secular text but most scholars assume a date of birth between 6 BC and 4 BC.[1] The historical evidence is too incomplete to allow a definitive dating,[2] but the date is estimated through two different approaches—one by analyzing references to known historical events mentioned in the nativity accounts in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew, and the second by working backwards from the estimation of the start of the ministry of Jesus.[3][4]

Contents

  • 1 Estimation via the Nativity accounts
  • 2 Working backwards from when Jesus began preaching
  • 3 Christmas celebration
  • 4 In Islam
  • 5 See also
  • 6 References
  • 7 External links

Estimation via the Nativity accounts[edit]

The nativity accounts in the New Testament gospels of Matthew and Luke do not mention a date or time of year for the birth of Jesus, and Karl Rahner states that the gospels do not, in general, provide enough details of dates to satisfy the demands of modern historians.[5] Mainstream scholars do not see the Luke and Matthew nativity stories as historically factual,[6] and for this reason, they do not consider them a reliable method for determining Jesus’ date of birth.[7] Karl Rahner states that the authors of the gospels generally focused on theological elements rather than historical chronologies.[8]

Both Luke and Matthew associate Jesus’ birth with the time of Herod the Great.[8] Matthew 2:1 states that “Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king”. He also implies that Jesus could have been as much as two years old at the time of the visit of the Magi, because Herod ordered the murder of all boys up to the age of two years, “in accordance with the time he had learned from the Magi”. Matthew 2:16[9] Most scholars agree that Herod died in 4 BC, although a case has also been made that Herod died only in 1 BC.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

Luke 1:5 mentions the reign of Herod shortly before the birth of Jesus,[4] but places the birth during the Census of Quirinius, which only took place ten years later in AD 6 as described by the Jewish historian Josephus.[8] He, in his Antiquities of the Jews (c. AD 93), indicates that Cyrenius/Quirinius’ governorship of Syria began in AD 6, and Josephus mentions a census sometime between AD 6–7.[16]

Most scholars believe Luke made an error in referring to the census.[17][18][19] Raymond E. Brown notes that “most critical scholars acknowledge a confusion and misdating on Luke’s part”.[20] As a result, most scholars generally accept a date of birth between 6 and 4 BC, the year in which Herod died.[1][4][8] Tertullian believed some two centuries later that a number of censuses were performed throughout the Roman world under Saturninus at the same time.[19][21][22] However some conservative Christian biblical scholars and commentators still believe the two accounts can be harmonised,[23][24] arguing that the text in Luke can be read as “registration before Quirinius was governor of Syria”, i.e. that Luke was actually referring to a completely different census. Geza Vermes has described such approaches as “exegetical acrobatics”.[25]

As far as the month of Jesus’ birth, it can be inferred to be summer or fall. Combining inferences from when shepherds would likely be in the fields and working backward from Zechariah’s priestly service (John the Baptist’s father) and its connections to Jesus’ birth, one arrives at a likely date of mid-September to early October. This would suggest the conception of Jesus might have been in December, but not his birth.[26][27]

Working backwards from when Jesus began preaching[edit]

Dispute of Jesus and the Pharisees, by James Tissot, c. 1890

Another approach to estimating the year of birth works backwards from when Jesus began preaching, based on the statement in Luke 3:23 that he was “about 30 years of age” at that time.[28] Jesus began to preach after being baptised by John the Baptist, and based on Luke’s gospel John only began baptising people in “the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar” (Luke 3:1–2), which scholars estimate would be in about AD 28–29.[28][29][30][31][32] By working backwards from this, it would appear that Jesus was probably born no later than 1 BC. However, if the phrase “about 30” is interpreted to mean 32 years old, this could fit a date of birth just within the reign of Herod, who died in 4 BC.[3][28][31]

This date is independently confirmed by John’s reference in John 2:20 to the Temple being in its 46th year of construction during Passover when Jesus began his ministry, which corresponds to around 27–29 AD according to scholarly estimates.[33]

Christmas celebration[edit]

Despite the celebration of Christmas in December, neither Luke nor Matthew mentions a season for when Jesus was born. However, scholarly arguments regarding the realism of shepherds grazing their flock during the winter have taken place, both challenging a winter birth for Jesus as well as defending it by relying on the mildness of winters in ancient Israel and rabbinic rules regarding sheep near Bethlehem before February.[34][35][36]

Alexander Murray of History Today says that the celebration of Christmas as the birth day of Jesus is based on a date of a pagan feast rather than historical analysis.[37] Saturnalia, the Roman feast for Saturn, was associated with the winter solstice. Saturnalia was held on 17 December of the Julian calendar and later expanded with festivities through to 23 December. The holiday was celebrated with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn, in the Roman Forum, and a public banquet, followed by private gift-giving, continual partying, and a carnival atmosphere that overturned Roman social norms. It is likely that such a Christian feast was chosen for Christ’s marked contrast and triumph over paganism; indeed, new converts who attempted to introduce pagan elements into the Christian celebrations were sharply rebuked.[38]

December 25 may have been selected due to its proximity to the winter solstice, because of its theological significance. After the solstice, the days begin to lengthen with more sunlight, which Christians see as representing the Light of Christ entering the world. This mirrors the celebration of the Nativity of Saint John the Baptist on June 24, near the summer solstice; John said of Jesus “He must increase, I must decrease.” John 3:30 NRSV[39]

In the 1st and 2nd centuries, the Lord’s Day (Sunday) was the earliest Christian celebration and included a number of theological themes. In the 2nd century, the Resurrection of Jesus became a separate feast as Easter and in the same century Epiphany began to be celebrated in the Churches of the East on 6 January.[40] The festival of the Nativity which later turned into Christmas was a 4th-century feast in the Western Church notably in Rome and North Africa, although it is uncertain exactly where and when it was first celebrated.[41]

The earliest source stating 25 December as the date of birth of Jesus is likely by Hippolytus of Rome, written very early in the 3rd century, based on the assumption that the conception of Jesus took place at the Spring equinox which he placed on 25 March, and then added nine months – festivals on that date were then celebrated.[42] 25 March would also roughly be the date of his crucifixion, which ancient Christians would have seen as confirming the date of his birth, since there was a notion that the great prophets were conceived into the afterlife on the same date they were conceived into the world. John Chrysostom also argued for a 25 December date in the late 4th century, basing his argument on the assumption that the offering of incense in Luke 1:8–11 was the offering of incense by a high priest on Yom Kippur (early October), and, as above, counting fifteen months forward. However, this was very likely a retrospective justification of a choice already made rather than a genuine attempt to derive the correct birth date.[43]

Lastly, 25 December might be a reference to the date of the Feast of the Dedication, which occurs on the 25 Kislev of the Jewish calendar. This would require that early Christians simply translated Kislev directly to December.

In Islam[edit]

In Islam, the Quran references a fruit branch which Mary shook as she gave birth.[44] This fruit, the date, is known to ripen during the summer months.[45]

See also[edit]

  • Adoration of the shepherds
  • Anno Domini
  • Ante Christum Natum
  • Baptism of Jesus
  • Christ myth theory
  • Chronology of Jesus
  • Common Era
  • Detailed Christian timeline
  • Gospel harmony
  • Historical Jesus
  • Historicity of Jesus
  • Jesus in Christianity
  • Life of Jesus in the New Testament
  • Timeline of the Bible

References[edit]

  • ^ a b Dunn, James DG (2003). “Jesus Remembered”. Eerdmans Publishing: 324..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  • ^ Doggett. (2000). “Calendars” (Ch. 12), in P. Kenneth Seidelmann (Ed.) Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. ISBN 0-935702-68-7. p579: “Although scholars generally believe that Christ was born some years before AD 1, the historical evidence is too sketchy to allow a definitive dating”.
  • ^ a b Paul L. Maier “The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus” in Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies by Jerry Vardaman, Edwin M. Yamauchi 1989 ISBN 0-931464-50-1 pp. 113–129
  • ^ a b c New Testament History by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pp. 121–124
  • ^ Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum Mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 p. 731
  • ^ Marcus Borg, “The Meaning of the Birth Stories” in Marcus Borg, N T Wright, The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions (Harper One, 1999) page 179: “I (and most mainline scholars) do not see these stories as historically factual.”
  • ^ Sanders, E. P. The historical figure of Jesus. Penguin, 1993, pages 85–88
  • ^ a b c d Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum Mundi by Karl Rahner 2004 ISBN 0-86012-006-6 page 731
  • ^ Freed, Edwin D (2004). “Stories of Jesus’ Birth”. Continuum International: 119.
  • ^ Barnes, Timothy David (1968). “The Date of Herod’s Death”. Journal of Theological Studies (19): 204–219.
  • ^ Bernegger, P. M. (1983). “Affirmation of Herod’s Death in 4 B.C.”. Journal of Theological Studies (34): 526–531. JSTOR 23963471.
  • ^ Gelb, Norman (21 February 2013). Herod the Great: Statesman, Visionary, Tyrant. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 140.
  • ^ Vardaman, Jerry (1989). Chronos, Kairos, Christos: Nativity and Chronological Studies Presented to Jack Finegan. Eisenbrauns. pp. 93–94. ISBN 9780931464508.
  • ^ Emil Schürer; Géza Vermès; Fergus Millar (January 1973). History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. p. 328. ISBN 9780567022424.
  • ^ Steinmann, Andrew E. (2009). “When Did Herod the Great Reign?”. Novum Testamentum. 51 (1): 1–29. doi:10.1163/156853608X245953.
  • ^ Flavius Josephus. The Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, Chapters 1–2. Josephus indicates that the census under Cyrenius (i.e., Quirinius) occurred in the 37th year after Octavian’s (i.e., Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus’) victory over Marc Antony at Actium, which secular historical records date to 2 September 31 BC. Therefore 31 BC + 37 years = AD 6–7.
  • ^ Archer, Gleason Leonard (April 1982). Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House. p. 366. ISBN 0-310-43570-6.
  • ^ Nikos Kokkinos, 1998, in Chronos, kairos, Christos 2 by Ray Summers, Jerry Vardaman ISBN 0-86554-582-0 pages 121–126
  • ^ a b C.F. Evans, Tertullian’s reference to Sentius Saturninus and the Lukan Census in the Journal of Theological Studies (1973) XXIV(1): 24–39
  • ^ Raymond E. Brown, An Adult Christ at Christmas: Essays on the Three Biblical Christmas Stories, (Liturgical Press, 1988), p. 17.
    For example, Dunn, James Douglas Grant (2003), Jesus Remembered, Eerdmans. p. 344. ISBN 0-8028-3931-2 Similarly, Erich S. Gruen, “The expansion of the empire under Augustus”, in The Cambridge ancient history Volume 10, p. 157.
    Geza Vermes, The Nativity, Penguin 2006, p. 96.
    W. D. Davies and E. P. Sanders, “Jesus from the Jewish point of view”, in The Cambridge History of Judaism ed William Horbury, vol 3: the Early Roman Period, 1984
    Anthony Harvey, A Companion to the New Testament (Cambridge University Press 2004), p. 221.
    Meier, John P., A Marginal Jew: Rethinking the Historical Jesus. Doubleday, 1991, v. 1, p. 213.
    Brown, Raymond E. The Birth of the Messiah: A Commentary on the Infancy Narratives in Matthew and Luke. London: G. Chapman, 1977, p. 554.
    A. N. Sherwin-White, pp. 166, 167.
    Fergus Millar Millar, Fergus (1990). “Reflections on the trials of Jesus”. In P.R. Davies; R.T. White. A Tribute to Geza Vermes: Essays on Jewish and Christian Literature and History (JSOT Suppl. 100). Sheffield: JSOT Press. pp. 355–81. repr. in Millar, Fergus (2006), “The Greek World, the Jews, and the East”, Rome, the Greek World and the East, University of North Carolina Press, 3: 139–163
  • ^ Nikos Kokkinos, 1998, in Chronos, kairos, Christos 2 by Ray Summers, Jerry Vardaman ISBN 0-86554-582-0 pp. 121–126
  • ^ The Life of Jesus of Nazareth by Rush Rhees 2007 ISBN 1-4068-3848-9 Section 54
  • ^ Archer, Gleason Leonard (April 1982). Encyclopedia of Bible Difficulties. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House. p. 366. ISBN 0-310-43570-6.
  • ^ Frederick Fyvie Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? (1943; republished Eerdman, 2003), pp. 87–88.
  • ^ Geza Vermes (2 November 2006). The Nativity: History and Legend. Penguin Books Limited. pp. 28–30. ISBN 978-0-14-191261-5.
  • ^ “When was Jesus born? | Bibleinfo.com”. www.bibleinfo.com. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  • ^ “When Was Jesus Born?”. Lamb and Lion Ministries. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  • ^ a b c The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament by Andreas J. Köstenberger, L. Scott Kellum 2009 ISBN 978-0-8054-4365-3 page 114
  • ^ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible 2000 Amsterdam University Press ISBN 90-5356-503-5 page 249
  • ^ The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, Volume 1 by Craig A. Evans 2003 ISBN 0-7814-3868-3 pages 67–69
  • ^ a b Christianity and the Roman Empire: background texts by Ralph Martin Novak 2001 ISBN 1-56338-347-0 pages 302–303
  • ^ Hoehner, Harold W (1978). Chronological Aspects of the Life of Christ. Zondervan. pp. 29–37. ISBN 0-310-26211-9.
  • ^ Jack V. Scarola, “A Chronology of the nativity Era” in Chronos, kairos, Christos 2 by Ray Summers, Jerry Vardaman 1998 ISBN 0-86554-582-0 pages 61–81
  • ^ “New Testament History” by Richard L. Niswonger 1992 ISBN 0-310-31201-9 pp. 121–124
  • ^ Luke: an introduction and commentary by Leon Morris 1988 ISBN 0-8028-0419-5 p. 93
  • ^ Stories of Jesus’ Birth by Edwin D. Freed 2004 ISBN 0-567-08046-3 pp. 136–137
  • ^ Murray, Alexander, “Medieval Christmas”, History Today, December 1986, 36 (12), pp. 31–39.
  • ^ “Library : History & Origin: Feast of the Nativity”. www.catholicculture.org.
  • ^ “Why do we celebrate Jesus’ birth on December 25? – Catholic Answers”. www.catholic.com.
  • ^ An introductory dictionary of theology and religious studies by Orlando O. Espín, James B. Nickoloff 2007 ISBN 0-8146-5856-3 page 237
  • ^ Christian worship in Reformed Churches past and present by Lukas Vischer 2002 ISBN 0-8028-0520-5 pages 400–401
  • ^ Mercer Dictionary of the Bible by Watson E. Mills, Edgar V. McKnight and Roger A. Bullard 2001 ISBN 0-86554-373-9 page 142
  • ^ Roger T. Beckwith (2001). Calendar and chronology, Jewish and Christian: biblical, intertestamental and patristic studies, p. 72
  • ^ Stowasser, Barbara Freyer (22 August 1996). Women in the Qur’an, Traditions, and Interpretation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199761838.
  • ^ “How are Dates Grown? Harvesting Dates at Dateland Date Gardens”. www.dateland.com. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
  • External links[edit]

    • Catholic Encyclopedia (1910): Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ

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    Area of birth

    “Birthplace” redirects here. For the Henry James short story, see The Birthplace.

    The place of birth (POB) or birth place is the place where a person was born. This place is often used in legal documents, together with name and date of birth, to uniquely identify a person. As a general rule with respect to passports, the place of birth is determined to be country that currently has sovereignty over the actual place of birth regardless of when the birth actually occurred.[citation needed] The place of birth is not necessarily the place where the parents of the new baby live. If the baby is born in a hospital in another place, that place is the place of birth. In many countries, this also means that the government requires that the birth of the new baby is registered in the place of birth.

    In other countries, such as Sweden since 1947, there is a concept of födelsehemort (“domicile of birth”), which means that the domicile of the baby’s mother is the registered place of birth.[1] The location of the maternity ward or other physical birthplace is considered unimportant.

    Sometimes the place of birth automatically determines the nationality of the baby, a practice often referred to with the Latin phrase jus soli (it depends on the law of the country to give the nationality). More often, this may also depend on the nationality or nationalities of the parents (referred to as jus sanguinis).

    There can be some confusion on the place of birth if the birth takes place in an unusual way: when babies are born in an airplane or at sea, difficulties can arise. The place of birth of such a person depends on the law of the countries involved, which include the nationality of the plane or ship, the nationality/nationalities of the parents and/or the position of the plane or ship (if the birth occurs in the territorial waters or airspace of a country).

    Some applications may request the “Country of Birth” of the applicant. It is important to determine from the requester whether the information requested refers to the “Place of Birth” or “Nationality at Birth” of the applicant. For US citizens born abroad that under the US Constitution acquire US citizenship at the time of birth, the Nationality at Birth will be USA (American), while Place of Birth would be the country in which the actual birth takes place.

    References[edit]

    • 8 FAM 403.4 Place of Birth
  • ^ “Newborn children are registered as born in the parish where the mother was registered at the time of delivery.” Tables on the population of Sweden 2006, page 430 .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:”””””””‘””‘”}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url(“//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png”)no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}ISBN 978-91-618-1383-4

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    Motel 6 Agrees to Pay $8.9 Million to Settle Claims It Helped ICE Arrest Guests

    Motel 6 Agrees to Pay $8.9 Million to Settle Claims It Helped ICE Arrest Guests

    Motel 6 has agreed to pay up to $8.9 million to settle a lawsuit claiming that its employees gave guests’ personal information to immigration authorities. The lawsuit alleged that the information led to the detainment of some guests.

    Fathers over 45 put the health of both babies and mothers at risk, according to a major new study

    A major study has found that the health of a baby is affected not just by the mother’s age, but by the father’s, too. Older dads are more likely to father babies who are premature and have other birth complications. Equally, the partners of men over 45 are mo…

    Baby’s Death During “Free Birth” Spurs Backlash Against Unassisted Childbirth Movement

    Women who choose to give birth without medical assistance have shut down their Facebook group, but the “free birth” community is still thriving online. View Entire Post ›

    Clues from gamma rays on the history of star birth

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, which celebrates its 10th year of operation, measures high-energy γ-ray emission, usually produced when cosmic rays (high-speed electrons or protons) interact with ordinary matter or radiation. Over the past 2 years, the F…

    Hilary Duff ate her placenta in a ‘delightful’ smoothie after giving birth, but doctors think it’s a bad idea

    In a recent episode of the “Informed Pregnancy ” podcast, Hilary Duff said she consumed her placenta in smoothies after giving birth to her second child, People reported. Some claim that the practice has benefits like improving milk supply and preventing post…

    Marriott Says Up To 500 Million Customers' Data Stolen In Breach

    Marriott Says Up To 500 Million Customers’ Data Stolen In Breach

    The hotel giant said information on up to 500 million customers worldwide was exposed in a breach of its Starwood reservation database. The data includes dates of birth and passport numbers.

    Some truths about Trump’s birthright plan

    The president wants to end the right of people born in the US to be citizens but he’s wrong about a few things.

    New Trump Health Care Attack Targets Obamacare Birth Control Mandate

    Religious groups, nonprofits and small businesses will soon be allowed to deny insurance coverage of birth control for “religious or moral” reasons.

    Starwood Hotels says 500 million guest records stolen in massive data breach

    Starwood Hotels has confirmed its hotel guest database of about 500 million customers has been stolen in a data breach. The hotel and resorts giant said in a statement that the “unauthorized access” to its guest database was detected on or before September 10…

    Should you buy Kingdom Hearts: The Story So far?

    Best answer: Yes. Kingdom Hearts is a notoriously convoluted series, so much so that it’s become a running joke about how difficult it is to explain its plot. If you’re gearing up for Kingdom Hearts III, this is the perfect bundle to get you caught up. Amazon…